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Simple Pronoun: He, She, It and They


eshaha (एषः), saha (सः) , kaha (कः), eshaa (एषा), saa (सा), kaa (का).


Let us  learn some simple words like eshaha (एषः), saha (सः), kaha (कः), eshaa (एषा), saa (सा), kaa (का).


eshaha (एषः) means 'he' in English. Further,  saha (सः) also means 'he'. We refer esha (एषः) to the person standing near by, where as saha (सः) is used when you are referring to a person standing away from you. Likewise, eshaa (एषा) and saa (सा), both of these words mean 'she' in feminine form.


kaha (कः)  means who in masculine form and kaa (का) means who in feminine form.


Let us make few simple sentences using these simple words.


eshaha kaha? (एषः कः)?

As we know eshaha (एषः) means 'he' and kaha (कः) means 'who' the whole sentence esha kaha? (एषः कः)? reads 'who is he?' .

You might be wondering whether are we missing the helping verb 'is' in Sanskrit? In the sentence eshaha kaha? (एषः कः)? we do not need a helping verb in Sanskrit. You will learn in detail in later sections why do we not need a helping verb while constructing sentences like this in Sanskrit.


Likewise, saha kaha? (सः कः)? also means 'who is he?' We know that both saha (सः) and esha (एषः) refer to 'he'.


Let us say, you would like to say 'he is Alex'. That would be saha Alexaha (सः अलेक्षः) or that can also be eshaha alexaha. (एषः अलेक्षः)


Similarly, 'who is she?' is eshaa kaa (एषा का) or saa kaa (सा का)?

And when you say 'she is Reeta'. That can either be eshaa Reetaa (एषा रीटा) or saa Reetaa (सा रीटा).


ete (एते), te (ते), ke (के), etaaha (एताः), taaha (ताः), kaaha (काः)


Let us try to learn few more words ete (एते), te (ते), ke (के), etaaha (एताः), taaha (ताः), kaaha (काः) in this section.


The word ete (एते) means 'they'. However, when we use the word ete (एते), it is in masculine form. Similarly the word etaaha (एताः) means 'they' in feminine form.


ke (के) means 'who' that corresponds to the word ete (एते). Meaning, the word ke (के) can be used with the word ete (एते) while asking the question, ete ke? (एते के)?, which means 'who are they?'. Similarly, the word kaaha (काः) can be used with the word etaaha (एताः). The sentence etaaha kaaha? (एताः काः)? means 'who are they'. In fact, both sentences ete ke? (एते के)? and etaaha kaaha? (एताः काः)? means, 'who are they' but the former in the masculine form and the latter in feminine form. Moreover, the words ete (एते) and etaaha (एताः) are referred in the similar fashion as the words eshaha (एषः) and eshaa (एषा) but in plural forms.


Words te (ते) and taaha (ताः) also means 'they' in masculine and feminine forms respectively. And they follow similar fashion as words saha (सः) and saa (सा) but in the plural forms. Interrogative words ke (के) and kaaha (काः) can be used with te (ते) and taaha (ताः) in order to make questions, te ke (ते के)? or taaha kaaha (ताः काः)? meaning 'who are they?'



etat (एतत्), tat (तत्), kim (किम्), etaani (एतानि), taani (तानि), kaani (कानि)


Words etat (एतत्) and tat (तत्) means 'this' and 'that' respectively. Words etaani (एतानि) and taani (तानि) are the plural forms of the words etat (एतत्) and tat (तत्) in that order.


Interrogative word kim (किम्) can be used either with etat (एतत्) or tat (तत्) in order to make the questions, etat kim? or tat kim? means  'what is this?' or 'what is that?' respectively. The word kim (किम्) means 'what'. The plural form of the word kim (किम्) is kaani (कानि). Hence, kaani (कानि) can be used along with the words etaani (एतानि) or taani (तानि) in order to make questions. The interrogative sentences etaani kaani? (एतानि कानि)? and taani kaani? (तानि कानि)? means 'what are these?' and 'what are those?' respectively.


Guest (not verified) Fri, 05/31/2013 - 06:54

This page does not tell us about "it"--only about he, she, they. How to say "it," "its" in Sanskrit?
Also, how to translate ""yo asav" (in Sanskrit) into English?

Nikhil Devraj (not verified) Tue, 04/07/2015 - 09:17


Hello everybody !

I just got this site today morning,

and after learing upto "Simple interrogetive words: who when why where and how", 

I am benefited something from here.

Many many thanks to Vidhyadhar Ji.

And I hope that I would get more knowledge from this.

               Nikhil Devraj

               7 April 2015


Guest (not verified) Sat, 01/02/2016 - 09:44

I found this site today in morning & i found that this is amazing site.
I founded it when i was searching for numbers in sanskrit

Guest (not verified) Thu, 07/19/2018 - 17:19

I found this site just now and feel good and very helpful to learn Sanskrit easily. This site is very nice. Thank you.

Guest (not verified) Wed, 04/01/2020 - 16:56


Guest (not verified) Wed, 08/05/2020 - 20:31

This website is very helpful and easily understood.
I got many help from such kind of rare website.
Thanks a ton to the admin of the site.

Guest (not verified) Tue, 09/22/2020 - 08:37

Very clear explanation . Thank you
Looks like no vocatiove case and words classified as pronouns in Sanskrit share a similar set of endings.

Guest (not verified) Wed, 11/18/2020 - 00:05


Guest (not verified) Fri, 11/27/2020 - 20:57

In reply to by Guest (not verified)

Esha does mean standing nearby- you're incorrect

Guest (not verified) Sat, 07/31/2021 - 12:17

Very helpful

Guest (not verified) Sat, 09/04/2021 - 16:51

Shobhanam asti

Guest (not verified) Fri, 10/29/2021 - 20:35

Very good explanation. I have exam tomorrow thank you