In this lesson we will learn few words, purataha (पुरतः), prashthataha (पृष्ठतः), vaamataha (वामतः), daxinataha (दक्षिणतः), upari (उपरि), adhaha (अधः).
The word purataha (पुरतः) means 'front'. For example, if I say 'there is a computer in front of me', that would be mama purataha ganakayantram asti (मम पुरतः गणकयन्त्रम् अस्ति). In this sentence we have used the word purataha (पुरतः). As you might have guessed the word ganakayantram (गणकयन्त्रम्) means computer. We know that the word mama (मम) means 'my'. The word asti (अस्ति) is used in the sense of existence in order to refer the word 'there is', in the sentence there is a computer in front of me'.
'Back' or 'behind' refer to the word prashthataha (पृष्ठतः) in Sanskrit. Let us use the word prashtataha (पृष्ठतः) in a sentence. Mama prashthataha pustakam asti (मम पृष्ठतः पुस्तकम् अस्ति), which means 'there is a book behind me'. Again, the word asti (अस्ति) is used to give the sense of existence similar to the previous sentence.
The word vaamataha (वामतः) can be used to refer the 'left side'. And the word daxinataha (दक्षिणतः) can be used to refer the 'right side'. Upari (उपरि) and adhaha (अधः) mean 'above' and 'below'. Let us use these words in a simple sentence.
Mama vamataha pustakam asti (मम वामतः पुस्तकम् अस्ति). This means 'there is a book towards my left side'. And if the word vaamataha (वामतः) is replaced by the word daxinataha (दक्षिणतः), the sentence becomes mama daxinataha pustakam asti (मम दक्षिणतः पुस्तकम् अस्ति). The meaning of the sentence now changes to 'there is a book towards my right side'. If we replace the word daxinataha (दक्षिणतः) by upari (उपरि), the sentence reads mama upari pustakam asti (मम उपरि पुस्तकम् अस्ति). This means 'the book is on the top of me'. Rather than using the word upari (उपरि) if we use the word adhaha (अधः), the sentence will change to mama adhaha pustakam asti (मम अधः पुस्तकम् अस्ति). This means 'the book is beneath me'.
If we say, upari aakashaha asti (उपरि आकाशः अस्ति), that means 'the sky is above me'. And if we say adhaha bhoomihi asti (अधः भूमिः अस्ति), that would be 'earth is beneath me'.