The word aham (अहम्) means 'I'. Let us use the word aham (अहम्) along with the verb pathaami (पठामि) which makes the simple sentence aham pathaami (अहं पठामि), meaning, 'I read'.
The word na (न) indicates the negative response and the word aam (आम्) is affirmative in nature. In other words aam (आम्) is 'yes' and na (न) is 'no'. If the sentence aham pathaami (अहं पठामि) is told along with the word na (न), then aham na pathaami (अहं न पठामि) would mean 'I don't read'. Where as, when the word aam (आम्) is used along with aham pathaami (अहं पठामि), then aam aham pathaami (आम् अहं पठामि) would make the sentence more affirmative ('I do read').
Vayam (वयम्) is a plural form of the word aham (अहम्). And vayam pathaamaha (वयं पठामः) means 'we read'.
Let us learn another two basic words bhavaan (भवान्) and bhavatee (भवती). The word, bhavaan (भवान्) means you in masculine form and the word bhavatee (भवती) means you in feminine form.
'You are reading, aren't you?' can be translated in Sanskrit as 'bhavaan pathati vaa?' (भवान् पठति वा)? in masculine form. The same question in feminine form would be 'bhavatee pathati vaa?' (भवती पठति वा)?
bhavantaha (भवन्तः) and bhavatyaha (भवत्यः) are the plural form of the words bhavaan (भवान्) and bhavatee (भवती). 'You are reading, aren't you?' would be bhavantaha pathanti vaa? (भवन्तः पठन्ति वा)? in masculine plural form and bhavatyaha pathanti vaa? (भवत्यः पठन्ति वा)?in feminine plural form.
Please note that the verb (dhaatu) path (पठ्) changes to pathaami (पठामि), pathaamaha (पठामः), pathati (पठति) and pathanti (पठन्ति) with aham (अहम्), vayam (वयम्), bhavaan/bhavatee (भवान्/भवती) and bhavantha/bhavatyaha (भवन्तः/भवत्यः). You would learn about how this happens in detail in later sections.